Rationale

MACPI toolkit methodology aims at arriving at a single quantitative index for each area of anti-corruption enforcement. The index will make it possible to link data on corruption victimization with the assessments of anti-corruption enforcement. This will allow for assessing the dynamic interrelation between trends in corruption victimization (by sectors) and trends in corruption enforcement gaps (by sectors). Based on that policy conclusions regarding the relevance and relative effectiveness of anti-corruption measures and anti-corruption enforcement will be made possible.
The toolkit methodology is premised on the understanding of three interrelated issues:

  1. The anti-corruption enforcement progress is measurable;
  2. This progress should be linked to corruption victimisation metrics to capture policy and enforcement efficiency;
  3. Monitoring needs to be done in a public-private cooperation;

Although there are several methods for measuring corruption and evaluating the delivery of anti-corruption policies in Europe, these have not been used in conjunction. Monitoring (e.g. GRECO, CVM), as a review of policies and institutional capacity, evaluates anti-corruption input. The output - in other words the impact on corruption - can only be assessed through enforcement measurement methods. Corruption measurement is needed in order to put the results of policy reviews in perspective, to track its dynamics and identify vulnerable sectors and weak spots of enforcement. It is only by joining these tools that a credible capacity can be developed at the European level to assess the situation in the Union “in a coherent cross-cutting manner” (COM (2011) 308 final).

Assessing anti-corruption enforcement progress cannot be, as often implied, a technical exercise. Instead, the process through which it is carried out is an integral part of the legitimacy of its findings. Governments are prone to underestimate the level of corruption or overestimate the effectiveness of anti-corruption policies enforcement.

The methodology is based on two premises: analytically, it will combine mapping of extant monitoring tools in Europe with the design of an integrated approach to monitoring of (anti)corruption; procedurally, it will promote the use of public-private partnerships in monitoring. Initial mapping identified the state of the art in corruption measurement. It was complemented by a review of assessment methods for anti-corruption policies. The review was followed and complemented by analytical work which resulted in a draft MACPI Toolkit for both policy assessment and corruption measurement. The draft was consulted with policy makers, law-enforcement agencies and researchers at workshops, through correspondence and by means of in-depth interviews. Finally the model was adjusted as a result of the consultations and was piloted in Bulgaria and Italy.